Where are Tropical Diseases Occurring and How Do You Prevent Contracting Them?
The only vaccine that had been licensed in the United States for cholera has been
discontinued because the risk for cholera to U.S. travelers has been so law as to make the benefit of receiving a
vaccine questionable due to its brief immunity.
Cholera has spread from Indonesia through most of Asia and Eastern Europe and also Africa, North Africa to
the Iberian Peninsula. There was an epidemic that began in Peru and quickly spread to other countries in the
Western Hemisphere. There were almost 185,000 cases of cholera reported to the World Health Organization (WHO).
The only vaccine that had been licensed in the United States for cholera has been discontinued because the risk
for cholera to U.S. travelers has been so law as to make the benefit of receiving a vaccine questionable due to its
brief immunity. There are no countries requiring a vaccination to enter the country. If local authority requires a
vaccine, then a single oral dose may be given to satisfy any local requirements. As a preventative those traveling
to cholera- affected areas should avoid eating high-risk foods, such as fish and shellfish. Food that is safe to
eat are those that are served hot and fruits and vegetables that are peeled by the traveler personally. Ice and
beverages should be made from boiled or chlorinated water. Carbonated beverages are also safe to drink.
A viral disease that is mosquito-borne and appears similar to flu is yellow fever. You will only see yellow
fever in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America. Africa has the majority of the reported cases of yellow
fever. The main culprit behind the spread of yellow fever is vectors. Children and infants have the highest risk
for infection. Forests areas of Bollivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru are also high risk areas for yellow
fever. Avoid known yellow fever areas and avoid being bitten by mosquitos and avoid vectors.
Malaria is perhaps the most well known of all the tropical diseases. It can be serious even fatal and is caused
by a parasite. There are actually 4 kinds of malaria that can infect humans - Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P.
ovale, and P. malariae.
| The ten diseases are: African trypanosomiasis, chagas disease, dengue fever, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis and also tuberculosis. cholera, leprosy, tuberculosis and yellow fever are not only tropical diseases because they do occur elsewhere than just the tropics, they have a very high incidence in the tropics which is why they are included. There are some occurrences of epidemics such as the Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and the Lassa fever or the Marburg virus which are not considered tropical diseases but do occur in the tropics in epidemic form. Besides Ebola other epidemics have been West Nile disease, Guinea Worm, and Mapucho hemorrhagic fever. The consistent hot climate and large volume of rains creates the environment that breeds tropical disease. Tropical Disease Research
There are 100 countries and territories that malaria can be contracted. The largest areas of infection for
malaria are Brasil, Central and South America, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, Africa, the Indian subcontinent,
Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Oceania.
Malaria-infected mosquitoes cause malaria. Preventing infection requires that you avoid being bitten by
mosquitoes and by taking prophylactics antimalaria preparation.
Mosquitoes are also responsible for transmitting dengue fever. The high risk times are seasonal especially
shortly after and during the rainy season. The risk occurs in both rural and urban areas. Dengue fever happens only
in endemic regions and as periodic epidemics.
Lymphatic filariasis is transmitted by adult worms. This disease affects approximately 120 million individuals
in the tropical regions of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, southern Asia, the western Pacific
islands, the northeastern coasts of South
and Central America and the Caribbean islands. Avoiding mosquitoes is how to prevent this disease and to avoid
areas where infection is active.
Sand flies are responsible for the transmission of Leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease. The skin sores that
signal the disease appear within weeks or months after being bitten. The disease is prevalent in Bangladesh,
Brasil, India, Nepal and Sudan. It occasionally shows up in northern Argentina, southern Texas in the U.S.,
northern Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Those who are out between dusk and dawn are at highest risk. To prevent
Leishmaniasis wear protective clothing and use insect repellent. Placing permethrin on bed netting, window screens
and clothing can deter sand flies.