Alcoholism is a Widespread
For most people who drink, alcohol is a pleasant accompaniment to social
activities. Moderate alcohol use—up to two drinks per day for men and one drink per day for women and older
people—is not harmful for most adults. (A standard drink is one 12-ounce bottle or can of either beer or wine
cooler, one 5-ounce glass of wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled spirits.) Nonetheless, a large number
of people get into serious trouble because of
their drinking. Currently,
nearly 17.6 million adult Americans abuse alcohol or are alcoholic.
Several million more adults engage in risky drinking that could lead to alcohol problems. These patterns include
binge drinking and heavy drinking on a regular basis. In addition, 53 percent of men and women in the United States
report that one or more of their close relatives have a drinking problem.
The consequences of alcohol misuse are serious—in many cases, life
threatening. Heavy drinking can increase the risk for certain cancers, especially those of the liver,
esophagus, throat, and larynx (voice box). Heavy drinking can also cause liver cirrhosis, immune system
problems, brain damage, and harm to the fetus during pregnancy. In addition, drinking increases the risk of
death from automobile crashes as well as recreational and on-the-job injuries. Furthermore, both homicides
and suicides are more likely to be committed by persons who have been drinking. In purely economic terms,
alcohol-related problems cost society approximately $185 billion per year. In human terms, the costs cannot
What Is Alcoholism?
Alcoholism, also known as “alcohol dependence,” is a disease that
includes four symptoms:
- Craving: A strong need, or compulsion, to
- Loss of control: The inability to limit one’s
drinking on any given occasion.
- Physical dependence: Withdrawal symptoms, such
as nausea, sweating, shakiness, and anxiety, occur when alcohol use is stopped after a period of heavy
- Tolerance: The need to drink greater amounts of
alcohol in order to “get high.”
People who are not alcoholic sometimes do not understand why an alcoholic
can’t just “use a little willpower” to stop drinking. However, alcoholism has little to do with willpower.
Alcoholics are in the grip of a powerful “craving,” or uncontrollable need, for alcohol that overrides
their ability to stop drinking. This need can be as strong as the need for food or water.
Although some people are able to recover from alcoholism without help,
the majority of alcoholics need assistance. With treatment and support, many individuals are able to
stop drinking and rebuild their lives.
Many people wonder why some individuals can use alcohol without problems but others cannot. One important reason
has to do with genetics. Scientists have found that having an alcoholic family member makes it more likely that if
you choose to drink you too may develop alcoholism. Genes, however, are not the whole story. In fact, scientists
now believe that certain factors in a person’s environment influence whether a person with a genetic risk for
alcoholism ever develops the disease. A person’s risk for developing alcoholism can increase based on the person’s
environment, including where and how he or she lives; family, friends, and culture; peer pressure; and even how
easy it is to get alcohol.